Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy


Nuclear Physics and Atomic Energy

  ISSN: 1818-331X (Print), 2074-0565 (Online)
  Publisher: Institute for Nuclear Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  Languages: Ukrainian, English, Russian
  Periodicity: 4 times per year

  Open access peer reviewed journal


 Home page   About 
Nucl. Phys. At. Energy 2017, volume 18, issue 3, pages 276-286.
Section: Radiobiology and Radioecology.
Received: 18.04.2017; Accepted: 12.10.2017; Published online: 28.12.2017.
PDF Full text (en)
https://doi.org/

Estimation of the excess lifetime cancer risk from radon exposure in some buildings of Kufa Technical Institute, Iraq

Ali Abid Abojassim1,*, Hussien Abid Ali Mraity1, Afnan Ali Husain1, Mike Wood2

1 University of Kufa, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Kufa, Iraq
2 School of Environment & Life Sciences, University of Salford, United Kingdom


*Corresponding author. E-mail address: ali.alhameedawi@uokufa.edu.iq

Abstract: A number of international health organizations consider the exposure to residential radon as the second main cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. It was found that there is no database on radon concentrations for the Kufa Technical Institute buildings in the literature. This therefore triggers a special need for radon measurement in some Kufa Technical Institute buildings. This study aims to investigate the indoor radon levels inside the Kufa Technical Institute buildings for the first time using different radon measurement methods such as active (RAD-7) and passive (LR-115 Type II) methods. Seventy eight of Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) LR-115 Type II were distributed at four buildings within the study area. The LR-115 Type II detectors were exposed in the study area for three months period. In parallel to the latter, seventy two active measurements were conducted using RAD-7 in the same buildings for correlation investigation purposes between the two kinds of measurements (i.e. passive and active).The results demonstrate that the radon concentrations were generally low, ranging from 38.4 to 77.2 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 50 Bq/m3. The mean of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and annual effective dose were assessed to be 19.9 Bq/m3 and 1.2 mS/y, respectively; the excess lifetime lung cancer risk was approximately 11.6 per million personal. A high correlation was found between the methods of measurements (i.e. LR-115 Type II and RAD-7), R2 = 0.99 which is significant at P < 0.001. The results of this work revealed that the Radon concentration was below the action level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency of 148 Bq/m3. This therefore indicates that no radiological health hazard exists. However, the relatively high concentrations in some classrooms can be addressed by the natural ventilation or the classrooms being supplied with suction fans.

Keywords: radon concentrations, excess of lung risk factor, Kufa Technical Institute buildings.

References:

1. Mohammed Kassim. Development and determination of radon activity concentration in water using gamma spectrometry technique. MSc Thesis (University Technology Mara, 2012).

2. W. Han, K.N. Yu. Ionizing radiation, DNA double strand break and mutation. In: Advances in Genetics Research. Vol. 4. Ed. K.V. Urbano (Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010) p. 197. Article

3. Radon in Existing Building. Corrective Options (Dublin: Brunswick Press Ltd., 2002) 30 p. Book

4. A.B. Ammar et al. Indoor radon concentration measurement in selected factories in Northern and Central Iraq. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 3(3) (2013) 105. http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEES/article/view/5007

5. S.A. Rahimi, B. Nikpour. Measurement of Radon Concentration of Air Samples and Estimating Radiation Dose from Radon in SARI Province. Universal Journal of Public Health 1(2) (2013) 26. http://doi.org/10.13189/ujph.2013.010203

6. I.V. Yarmoshenko, G.P. Malinovsky. Lung cancer mortality and radon exposure in Russia. Nukleonika 61(3) (2016) 263. http://doi.org/10.1515/nuka-2016-0044

7. Deepak Verma, M.S. Khan. Assessment of indoor radon, thoron their progeny in dwelling of Bareilly city of Northern India using track etch detectors. Rom. Journ. Phys. 59(1-2) (2014) 172. http://www.nipne.ro/rjp/2014_59_1-2/0172_0182.pdf

8. Mamta Gupta, A.K. Mahur, K.D. Verma. Indoor radon levels in some dwellings surrounding the National Thermal Power Corporations (NTPCs), India. Advances in Applied Science Research 3(3) (2012) 1262. Article

9. Mohamed Abd-Elzaher. An overview on studying 222Rn exhalation rates using passive technique solid-state nuclear track detectors. American Journal of Applied Sciences 9(10) (2012) 1653. http://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2012.1653.1659

10. Prabhjot Singha et al. A study of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny measurement in Tosham region Haryana, India. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences 8(2) (2015) 226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2015.01.008

11. Ali Abid Abojassim Al-Hamidawi. Monitoring of 220Rn concentrations in buildings of Kufa Technical Institute, Iraq. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations 2015 (2015) 738019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/738019

12. H.H. Hussain et al. Natural radioactivity of some local building materials in the middle Euphrates of Iraq. Journal of Radioanalytic and Nuclear Chemistry 284 (2010) 43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-010-0464-1

13. Ali Abid Abojassim et al. Radiological parameters due to radon-222 in soil samples at Baghdad Governorate (Karakh), Iraq. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. Ser. A: Phys. Sci. 60(2) (2017) 72. Abstract

14. K.P. Eappen, Y.S. Mayya. Calibration factors for LR-115 (Type-II) based radon thoron discriminating dosimeter. Radiation Measurements 38 (2004) 5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radmeas.2003.09.003

15. A.A. Abojassim et al. The effective radium content and radon exhalation rate in hair dyes samples. International Journal of Radiation Research 15(2) (2017) 207. https://ijrr.com/article-1-1965-en.pdf

16. H.N. Hady, A.A. Abojassim, Z.B. Mohammed. Study of radon levels in fruits samples using LR-115 Type II detector. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9(6) (2016) 446. https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2016.446.451

17. Vikas Duggal, Asha Rani, Rohit Mehra. A study of seasonal variations of radon levels in different types of dwellings in Sri Ganganagar district, Rajasthan. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences 7 (2014) 201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrras.2014.02.007

18. M.S.A. Khan, M. Tariq, R.B.S. Rawat. Preliminary measurements of radon radiations in Bare Mode in Rampur district of Western U.P. (India). IOSR Journal of Applied Physics 1(4) (2012) 4. https://doi.org/10.9790/4861-0140407

19. United Nations. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with annexes (New York: United Nations, 2000). Vol. 1

20. I. Nsiah-Akoto et al. Indoor radon levels and the associated effective dose rate determination at dome in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 3(2) (2011) 124. http://maxwellsci.com/print/rjees/v3-124-130.pdf

21. Evolution of ICRP Recommendations 1977, 1990 and 2007. Changes in Underlying Science and Protection Policy and their Impact on European and UK Domestic Regulation. NEA No. 6920 (OECD, 2011) 117 p. https://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2011/6920-icrp-recommendations.pdf

22. RAD-7 Electronic Radon Detector. Manual version 6.0.1. (Durridge Company Inc., 2010). https://www.durridge.com/documentation/RAD7%20Manual.pdf

23. Radon Measurements in School. Revised Edition. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation (6604J). EPA Document #402-R-92-014. July 1993. http://www.radon-pro.com/Pro-Services/html/EPA-Radon-In-Schools.pdf

24. A. Malanca, R. Fava, L. Gaidolfi. Indoor radon levels in kindergartens and play-schools from the province of Parma. J. Environ. Radioactivity 40 (1998) 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(97)00067-2

25. K. Dabayneh. Indoor radon concentration measurements in Tarqumia Girl schools at Western Hebron Region, Palestine. Isotope and Rad. Res. 38 (2006) 1067. Article

26. S. Labidi et al. Radon in elementary schools in Tunisia. Radioprotection 45 (2010) 209. https://doi.org/10.1051/radiopro/2010003

27. R.I. Obed et al. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in secondary schools in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 102 (2011) 1012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.06.012

28. A.A. Abdulhussan et al. Measurement of radon concentrations for some houses in Al-Najaf city, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Physics 11(22) (2013) 51.

29. E.J. Mohammed. Radon concentrations in some soil and air samples of dwellings in Karbala City and influencing factors on lung cancer risks using CR-39. MSc Thesis (University of Kerbala College of Science, 2016).

30. F.S. Najeba, S.J. Mohamad. Higher levels of radon affect women's fertility in Iraqi Kurdistan. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 22(4) (2013) 1163. http://www.pjoes.com/pdf/22.4/Pol.J.Environ.Stud.Vol.22.No.4.1163-1169.pdf

31. F.T. Nada, O.R. Noora, A.A. Asmaa. Measurement of indoor radon concentration in various dwellings of Baghdad Iraq. International Journal of Physics 3(5) (2015) 202. https://doi.org/10.12691/ijp-3-5-1